If you finish Banking or Experimentation at the Cycle, you get the bonus. I.e. an extra $75 for banking and the extra points from Experimentation.
If you finish Hyper, Scan, and Terra at the Cycle (or a turn point), you obviously can then Jump/See/Build with the additional capability.
For Manu and Weapons, you also then get that extra capability, but it becomes effective next tick. I.e. you don’t get the boost WHEN you finish it, but the following tick.